Information About Nepal


The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is one of the most diverse and beautiful places on earth and it is rich in history home to more than 80 different groups of people and generally unaffected by the modern ways of the western world. With the world's 10 highest mountains, lush tropics, arctic tundra, high deserts, compressed into 147,100 square km., there is always another mesmerizing place for us to take you to quickly. And unlike other Asian destinations, you can visit Nepal any time of year. If fascinating cities and ancient architecture is what you seek, take a journey back in time to today's Kathmandu, the capital and travel crossroads. Shop at its bazaars, visit its countless temples, walk the grounds of ancient palaces, or have a cup of tea at one of the many tea stands that offers people watching like you have never known it. When you're ready for something more rural, we can take you south to the Terai, Nepal's agricultural home where farming is still carried out by hand and fields plowed by ox and to Chitwan National Park where Bengal tigers, elephants and rhinos rule the land. Western Nepal is the most remote and least-known region of the country.

Nepal is among the few countries in the world where Seven World Heritage Sites are situated within 20 KMs. of radius.

  • Location : Between India & the Tibetan Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
  • Latitude : 26 degree 12 ' and 30 degree 27' North
  • Longitude : 80 degree 4' and 88 degree 12' East
  • National Bird : Impean Pheasant (Danfe)
  • National Flower : Rhododendron Arboreum (Lali Gurans)
  • National Color : Red (Simrik)
  • National Animal : Cow
  • National Flag : flag of nepal


Nepal is a country of ancient civilization which can be traced thousands of years before the birth of Christ (B.C). However, scientifically reliable documents that are available now date back only to the 5th Century AD when the Lichhavis ruled over the country. We have to be content with various Legends about the earlier periods until more authentic documents are found. Legends say that the very first dynasty to rule the Kathmandu valley was Gopala dynasty. Then ruled by Kiratas. After Kiratas, then came rulers of Lichhavis dynasty who improved the economy and making great contributions for the development f the art of building, temples, images and places. After Lichhavis period, another important era of Nepalese history is the Malla dynasty ruled around 13th century AD. Innumerable temples, palaces, idols and carving that are preserved in the valley, speak of the excellence in art and architecture during that period. In this sense Nepal has a long and a glorious history. By 1767 AD, the Great King Prithivi Narayan Shah of Shah Dynasty conquered various warring principalities and laid the foundation of modern Nepal. After Prithivi Narayan Shah, the campaign of the unification was given continuity by his younger son Bahadur Shah and was launched once again by the First Prime Minister of Nepal Bhimsen Thapa. However the expansion came to a halt when Nepal came into conflict with British India Company and signed the treaty of Sugauli which lost the most important territories of Nepal. Another crucial chapter of the history began the fall of Rana Regime in February 1951, after a popular revolution Nepal saw the dawn of democracy. A democratic revolt of 1990 has reinstated the Multi-party democratic system since April 1990. A people movement of 2005 had removed the Shah Dynasty of constitutional monarchy. Nepal has been declared as Federal Democratic Republic by the First Constitutional Assembly on 28th May 2008.


Nepal is a landlocked country lies between 800 4' and 800 12' east longitude and 260 22' and 300 4' north latitude. The total area comprises of 147,181 sq. km, its border touches Tibetan Autonomous Region of China in the north and India in the east, south and west. The country is almost like rectangular with average 885 km east-west length and average width of 193 km north-south. The country can be tentatively divided into three geographical regions running east to west. They are:

  • The Himalayan Region
  • The Hilly Region
  • The Terai Region


This region covers the mountain range whose altitude is 4,000 meters to 8,848 meters above the sea level. With spare human habitation, most of the areas have a wild landscape, undisturbed tranquility of the nature rules over the land. Along with Mt. Everest, the region includes eight of the 14 peaks of the world which exceed the altitude of 8,000 meters and many more mountains. The Himalayan region also divided into 3 regions:

  • Greater Himalaya
  • Boarder Himalaya / Trans Himalaya
  • Inner Himalaya / High Mountain Valley / Bhot


Hilly region covers the areas whose altitude is 600 meters to 4,000 meters above the sea-level and accounts for nearly 64 percent of total land area of the country. Along with the Mahabharat and Churia Mountain ranges, this region has many longitudinal fertile valleys of the principal rivers. Kathmandu valley is also situated in this very region. Hilly region is also divided into 3 sub regions:-

  • The Midland Range (Valley/Tars/Beshi)
  • Mahabharat Range
  • Churia Range


This region forms a low flat land belt and includes the most fertile land and dense forest areas of the Country. It accounts 17 percent of the total land of the country. It has the width of 26 to 32 kilometers and its altitude does not exceed 305 meters above the sea level. This region is also divided into 3 regions:

  • Southern Terai Region
  • Bhabar Pradesh Region
  • Inner Terai Region


Nepal is 5 hrs 45 minutes ahead of GMT.


In Nepal Nepalese Rupee is subdivided into 100 paisa. The denominations of currency notes are available in 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100, 500, and 1000. Similarly, coins are available in 1, 2 and 5 rupees, which are in circulation.


Exchange counter are available at the airport and local banks. There are also foreign exchange counters available at the different places of the cities. Tourists are advised to obtain and retained the foreign exchange encashment receipts so as to reconvert the unused Nepali currency into foreign currency. Visitors are required to fill the currency declaration form at the port of entry. Major national daily newspapers publish foreign exchange rates every day.


Foreign visitors for entering to Nepal can be obtained visa from the Nepalese Embassies, Consulate offices in your countries, at the point of entry from the Immigration Office at the Tribhuvan International Airport for the tourist arriving by air and tourist arriving by road can obtain visa at the immigration offices at the border with India and China.


Government and most of the offices work six day a week. Saturday is the official weekly holidays in Nepal. Most of the shops are remains open from Sunday through to Friday, while Museum throughout the valley remains closed on Tuesday and other Government holidays. Other holidays are listed in the Nepalese calendar.


Government offices open from 10 A.M. to 17:00 P.M. during summer and till 16:00 P.M. in winter. On Friday, these offices are open till 15:00 P.M.


Banks are open between 09:00 A.M. to 5:00 PM, Monday to Friday and is available in all major cities of Nepal..


Nepal's climate is best described as Sub-Tropical Monsoon general predictable and pleasant. The monsoon is approximately from the end of June to the middle of September. 80 percent of rainfall is by this durations and remaining of the year is dry. It has been classified into between four and six seasons, which are as follows:

  • Winter Season (December to February)
  • Autumn Season (September to November)
  • Summer Season (June to August)
  • Spring Season (March to May)


International certificate of vaccination regarding current inoculation against cholera, typhoid and yellow fever is not required.


In Kathmandu, boiled and filtered water as well as mineral water is available in most of the hotels and restaurants. Elsewhere, it is advisable to use water sterilization tablets or stick to tea and soft drinks.


Nepal�s population is about 30 millions (3,00,00,000). According to the census taken by the Central Bureau of Statistics state that there are 61 (presently 59) ethnic groups of people speak different languages. However most of the ethnic groups can be broadly divided into two groups: Indo-Aryans/Indo-Nepalese and Tibeto Mongolians/Tibeto Nepalese. Historically the people of the former group entered the territory of Nepal during the period of Muslim�s conquest in the Indian sub-continental and the latter came to Nepal across the Himalayas pass from the north and they inhabited the Himalayan valley and slopes. The latter group is the aboriginals of the country. In addition, there are many nomadic tribes in the hills and terai who have now submitted to the agrarian system. Major cast groups in Nepal :

  • Brahmans
  • Chhetris & Thakuris
  • Gurung
  • Magar
  • Sherpa
  • Tharu
  • Newar


Religious structure of Nepal has a unique place in the world. All the sects co-exist with universal brotherhood. Hindu and Buddhist are visiting the same places of pilgrimages. This serves as fine examples of fellow feeling. Tolerance in religious is one of the most remarkable features of Nepal culture. Nepal never witnessed religious riots. Overwhelming majority of the population are Hindu and Buddhist, they are many religious that are followed by different ethnic groups. Most of these sects are in the form of animism. They believe in host of spirits or supernatural beings as they worshipped by their generations.


Thousands of gods and goddesses make up the Hindu pantheon. Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are the three major Hindu gods who have their own characteristics and incarnations. Each god has his own steed which is often seen kneeling faithfully outside that god and goddess temples. Symbolic objects are carries by the multiple hands of each deity which empowers them to perform great feats. The followers of Hinduism are roughly divided into three groups i.e. Nepali speaking Hindu of hilly region, the Maithili, Bhojpuri and Awadhi speaking groups of the Terai and the Newars of Kathmandu valley. They differ in customary practices; however they have indisputable arrangement as regard to broader philosophical aspects of the religion.


Sakyamuni Buddha is the founder of Buddhism who lived and taught in this part of the world during the sixth century BC. The great stupas of Swayambhunath and Boudhanath are among the oldest and most beautiful worship sites in the Kathmandu Valley. The spinning of prayer wheels, prostrating pilgrims, collective chants and burning butter lamps are some Buddhist practices often encountered by tourist. a slip of paper bearing a mantra is kept inside the wheels so that prayers are sent to the gods when the wheel is spun. Scenes from the Buddha�s life and Buddhist realms are depicted on thangka scroll paintings which are used during meditation and prayer ceremonies. Many Buddhist followers are seen performing these practices in Swayambhunath , Boudhanath, and at other Buddhist sites around the Valley.


Nepal is considered one of the best adventure destinations in the world. Nepal is geographically packs on extremely varied landscape into a small area. The immense contract in altitude and climate found here support a spectacular mix of lifestyles, vegetation and wildlife. Nepal is probably the only country in the world where you can climb the highest mountain of the world, trek to scenic countryside with icy pinnacles always in the background as well as enjoy jungle safari in forests considered to be the densest in the entire South Asian region.

  • Trekking
      There are four grades of Trekking in Nepal:
    • Easy Trekking (Elevation below 3500m)
    • Moderate Trekking (Elevation below 4500m)
    • Strenuous Trekking (Elevation below 5500m)
    • Very Strenuous Trekking (Elevation above 5500m)
  • Mountaineering (Peak Climbing)
  • Rafting / Kayaking / Canyoning
  • Jungle Safari
  • Culture & Heritage Sites
  • Rock Climbing
  • Mountain Biking
  • Bird Watching
  • Mountain Flight
  • Bungee Jumping
  • Cable Car
  • Paragliding
  • Village Tours
  • Honey Hunting
  • Special Interest Tours

Special interest tours are conducted in Nepal throughout the year to match all tastes. Lepidopterology 14 families butterflies are found in Nepal. These exotic species are especially visible in summer and the monsoon seasons. Similarly, fossils hunting, archaeological, Zoological, Geological, mythological, meteorological, historical tours fame hunting and other special interest take place throughout all seasons.


All foreigners interested to do trek in any part of Nepal should have obtained a Trekking permit / National Park Permit from the Government of Nepal and other concerned authorities through any authorized Trekking companies of Nepal.


Sightseeing entry fee is required to visit all sightseeing areas.


The Nepalese people are friendly and hospitable by nature and the tourists in general will have no difficulty in adjustment; since the majority of our people live in rural areas, they have a simple and traditional outlook on life. Nepalese people live and share that with them. It is the spirit that we offer some practical guidelines that could help to make the stay delightful, homely and rewarding.


More than 90% of the Nepalese people live in the rural areas and they have their own traditions and customs. Nepalese people look like very simple and innocent. They take a special delight to company with any other peoples. They are more interested to talk with the foreigners even though they may not able to talk and understand foreign languages. So, there are certain things that are alien to our people and some of the points to keep in mind. It is better to be decently clad when visiting any place. Sun and beach wear is not ideal when roaming around the city or village. Brief shorts, bare shoulders and backs may not be appreciated. One need not to be stiff, and overdressed but just comfortably and decently covered. Do not be offended if a Nepalese lady hesitates to shake hands. In Nepal, people and specially the ladies, do not normally shake hands when they greet one another, but instead press the palms together in a prayer-like gesture known as "Namaste". Public displays of affection between man and women are frowned upon. Do not do something that is totally alien to our environment. We are hard on drug abuse; trafficking and possession of drugs are taken as serious offences. Cheap charity breeds beggars but does not solve their basic problem. Therefore, do not encourage beggary by being benevolent.